Ecology and Biodiversity

“The Basin provides habitat for more than 290 bird, animal and fish species, and more than a thousand different plant species. Included are 16 species of imperiled wildlife—the endangered bald eagle and peregrine falcon, the osprey, goshawk and spotted owl, and the once abundant Lahontan cutthroat trout, now extinct in the lake and just recently reintroduced in the basin.”
— California Tahoe Conservancy
  • Old-Growth and Landscape Management
  • Fire and Fuels Management
  • Special Communities Management
  • Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration
  • Urbanization
  • Recreation
  • Climate Change
  • Summary of Near-Term Research Priorities


ResearchersForest Fuels and Vegetation Management


ResearchersHabitat Improvement

ResearchersAquatic Ecosystem Restoration

ResearchersClimate Change

Related Publications


  • Karam, S. L., Weisberg, P. J., Scheller, R. M., Johnson, D. W., Miller, W. W. (2013). Development and evaluation of a nutrient cycling extension for the LANDIS-II landscape simulation model. Ecological Modelling 250: 45-57.
  • Wittmann, M. E., Chandra, S., Reuter, J. E., Schladow, S. G., Allen, B. C., & Webb, K. J. (2012). The Control of an Invasive Bivalve, Corbicula fluminea, Using Gas Impermeable Benthic Barriers in a Large Natural Lake.Environmental management, 1-11.
  • Wittmann, M. E., Chandra, S., Reuter, J. E., Caires, A., Schladow, S. G., & Denton, M. (2012). Harvesting an invasive bivalve in a large natural lake: species recovery and impacts on native benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in Lake Tahoe, USA. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.
  • Chandra, S., & Caldwell, T. J. (2011). Inventory of aquatic invasive species and water quality in lakes in the Lower Truckee River Region.
  • Gautam, M.; Acharya, K.; Stone, M. (2010). Best Management Practices for Stormwater Management in the Desert Southwest. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education. v.146. pp.39-49.
  • Ngai, C. K. L., Chandra, S., Sullivan, J., Umek, J., Chaon, B., Zander, P., … & Gevertz, A. (2010). NICHES: Nearshore Indicators for Clarity, Habitat and Ecological Sustainability Development of nearshore fish indicators for Lake Tahoe.
  • Munck IA, Bennett CM, Camilli KS, Nowak RS. (2010). Long-term impact of de-icing salts on tree health in the Lake Tahoe Basin: environmental influences and interactions with insects and diseases. Forest Ecology and Management 260:1218-1229.
  • Rammer, G., & Chandra, S. (2010). Inventory of aquatic invasive species and water quality in lakes in the Lower Truckee River Region: 2010.
  • Caldwell, T.G., D.W. Johnson, W.W.  Miller, R.G. Qualls, and R.R. Blank. (2009). Prescription fire and anion retention in Tahoe forest soils. Soil Sci. 174:594-600.
  • Harrison, E., Team, N. T. R., Chandra, S., Ngai, K. L. C., Kamerath, M., & Allen, B. (2009). Warm-Water Non-Native Fishes in Lake Tahoe.
  • Verburg, P. S., Miller, W. W., Busse, M. D., Rice, E., & Grismer, M. E. Soil and Water Quailty Response to Fuels Management in the Lake Tahoe Basin.
  • Kamerath, M., Chandra, S., & Allen, B. C. (2008). Distribution and impacts of warm water invasive fish in Lake Tahoe, USA. Aquatic Invasions3(1), 35-41.
  • Raumann, C.G.and M.E. Cablk. 2008. Change in the forested and developed landscape of the Lake Tahoe basin, California and Nevada, USA 1940-2002. Forest Ecology and Management. 255:3424-3439.
  • Chandra, S., Vander Zanden, M. J., Heyvaert, A. C., Richards, B. C., Allen, B. C., & Goldman, C. R. (2005). The effects of cultural eutrophication on the coupling between pelagic primary producers and benthic consumers. Limnology and Oceanography, 1368-1376.
  • Kleppe, J. A. (2005). A Study Of Ancient Trees Rooted 36.5 M (120’) Below The Surface Level Of Fallen Leaf Lake, California. Journal of the Nevada Water Resources Association 2(1): 29-40.
  • Miller, W. W., Johnson, D. W., Denton, C., Verburg, P. S. J., Dana, G. L., & Walker, R. F. (2005). Inconspicuous nutrient laden surface runoff from mature forest Sierran watersheds. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution163(1), 3-17.
  • Donaldson, S. (2004). Invasive Weeds Of The Lake Tahoe Basin. Cooperative Extension Education Bulletin EB0405.
  • Rood, S. B., C. R. Gourley, E. M. Ammon, L. G. Heki, J. R. Klotz, M. L. Morrison, D. Mosley, G. G. Scoppettone, S. Swanson, P. L. Wagner. (2003). Flows For Floodplain Forests: A Successful Riparian Restoration. Bioscience53(7):647-656. AbstractProject WebsiteOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (2003). Effects Of Seed Size Of Wind-Dispersed Pines (Pinus) On Secondary Seed Dispersal And The Caching Behavior Of Rodents. Oikos 100(1):25-34. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (2002). Secondary Dispersal Of Jeffrey Pine Seeds By Rodent Scatter Hoarders: The Roles Of Pilfering, Recaching, And A Variable Environment. Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. D. J. Levey, W.R. Silva, and M. Galetti. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, CABI Publishing:193-208.
  • Cobourn, J., B. Carlos, J. Christopherson, W. Johnson, R. Post, J. Skelly, and E. Smith. (2002). Home Landscaping Guide For Lake Tahoe And Vicinity. Cooperative Extension Education Bulletin EB0201.
  • Eiswerth, M. E., S. G. Donaldson, W. S. Johnson. (2000). Potential Environmental Impacts And Economic Damages Of Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum Spicatum) In Western Nevada And Northeastern California. Weed Technology 14(3):511-518. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Beckmann, J. P. and C. W. Lackey. (2004). Are Desert Basins Effective Barriers To Movements Of Relocated Black Bears (Ursus Americanus)? Western North American Naturalist 64(2):269-272.
  • Beckmann, J.P., C.W. Lackey, J. Berger. (2004). Evaluation Of Deterrent Techniques And Dogs To Alter Behavior Of “Nuisance” Black Bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(4):1141-1146. AbstractOnline article (UNR access only)
  • Briggs, J. S. and S. B. Vander Wall. (2004). Substrate Type Affects Caching And Pilferage Of Pine Seeds By Chipmunks. Behavioral Ecology 15(4):666-672. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Müller-Navarra, D. C., Brett, M. T., Park, S., Chandra, S., Ballantyne, A. P., Zorita, E., & Goldman, C. R. (2004). Unsaturated fatty acid content in seston and tropho-dynamic coupling in lakes. Nature427(6969), 69-72.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. and W. S. Longland. (2004). Diplochory: Are Two Seed Dispersers Better Than One? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19(3):155-161. Online Article (UNR access only)
  • Verburg P.S.J., W. Cheng, D.W. Johnson, D.E Schorran. (2004). Nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation in three-year-old Jeffrey pines and the role of elevated [CO2]. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 34:1979-1984.
  • Vogler, D. R.; Charlet, D. A. (2004). First Report Of The White Pine Blister Rust Fungus (Cronartium Ribicola) Infecting Whitebark Pine (Pinus Albicaulis) And Ribes Spp. In The Jarbidge Mountains Of Northeastern Nevada. Plant Disease 88(7):772.
  • Beckmann, J. P.; Berger, J. (2003). Rapid Ecological And Behavioural Changes In Carnivores: The Responses Of Black Bears (Ursus Americanus) To Altered Food. Journal of Zoology London 261:207-212. AbstractOnline Article (UNR Access Only)
  • Beckmann, J. P. and J. Berger. (2003). Using Black Bears To Test Ideal-Free Distribution Models. Journal of Mammalogy 84(2):594-606. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B., M. J. Beck. (2003). Interspecific Variation In The Olfactory Abilities Of Granivorous Rodents.Journal of Mammalogy 84(2):487-496. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B. and S. H. Jenkins. (2003). Reciprocal Pilfering And The Evolution Of Food-Hoarding Behavior. Behavioral Ecology 14(5):656-667. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Zanden, M. J., Chandra, S., Allen, B. C., Reuter, J. E., & Goldman, C. R. (2003). Historical food web structure and restoration of native aquatic communities in the Lake Tahoe (California–Nevada) basin. Ecosystems6(3), 274-288.
  • Caldwell, T. G., D. W. Johnson, W. W. Miller , Qualls, R.G. (2002). Forest Floor Carbon And Nitrogen Losses Due To Prescription Fire. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66(1):262-267.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (2002). Masting In Animal-Dispersed Pines Facilitates Seed Dispersal. Ecology 83(12):3508-3516.AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Johnson, D.W., and P.S. Curtis. (2001). Effects of forest management on soil carbon and nitrogen storage: Meta Analysis. For. Ecol. Managem. 140: 227-238.
  • Bradley, T. and P. Tueller. (2001). Effects Of Fire On Bark Beetle Presence On Jeffrey Pine In The Lake Tahoe Basin. Forest Ecology and Management 142(1-3):205-214. Online Article (UNR only)
  • Johnson, D. W.; Susfalk, R. B.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Caldwell, T. G.; Miller, W. W. (2001). Nutrient Fluxes In A Snow-Dominated, Semi-Arid Forest: Spatial And Temporal Patterns. Biogeochemistry 55:219-245.
  • Johnson, D.W., R.B. Susfalk, H.L. Gholz, and P.J. Hanson. (2001). Simulated effects of temperature and precipitation change in several forest ecosystems. J. Hydrology 235: 183-204.
  • Pyare, S., W. S. Longland. (2001). Mechanisms Of Truffle Detection By Northern Flying Squirrels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79(6):1007-1015. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B., T. C. Thayer, J. S. Hodge, M. J. Beck, J. K. Roth. (2001). Scatter-Hoarding Behavior Of Deer Mice (Peromyscus Maniculatus). Western North American Naturalist 61(1):109-113.
  • Charlet, D. A. (2000). Coupling Species-Level Inventories With Vegetation Mapping. Madroño 47(4):259-264.
  • Johnson, D.W., W. Cheng, and I.C. Burke. (2000). Biotic and Abiotic Nitrogen Retention in a Variety of Forest Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 64: 1503-1514.
  • Johnson, D.W., T. Sogn, and S. Kvindesland. (2000). The Nutrient Cycling Model (NuCM): Lessons learned. For. Ecol. Managem. 138: 91-106.
  • Johnson, D. W.; Susfalk, R. B.; Gholz, H. L.; Hanson, P. J. (2000). Simulated Effects Of Temperature And Precipitation Change In Several Forest Ecosystems. Journal of Hydrology 235:183-204.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (2000). The Influence Of Environmental Conditions On Cache Recovery And Cache Pilferage By Yellow Pine Chipmunks (Tamias Amoenus) And Deer Mice (Peromyscus Maniculatus). Behavioral Ecology11(5):544-549. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Butt, A. Z., M. B. Ayers, S. Swanson, P. T. Tueller. (1998). Relationship Of Stream Channel Morphology And Remotely Sensed Riparian Vegetation Classification. American Water Resources Association Technical Publication Series TPS, Report: TPS-98-1. D. F. Potts. Bethesda, American Water Resources Association:409-416.
  • Donaldson, S., S. Seybold. (1998). Bark Beetles In The Lake Tahoe Basin. Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet Fact Sheet 98-40. Online publication
  • Donaldson, S., S. Seybold. (1998). Thinning & Sanitation: Tools For The Management Of Bark Beetles In The Lake Tahoe Basin. Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet FS 98-42. Online publication
  • Johnson, D.W., R. B. Susfalk, and R.A. Dahlgren.  (1997).  Nutrient fluxes in forests of the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA.  Global Biogeochem. Cy. 11: 673-681.
  • Ammon, E. M., P. B. Stacey. (1997). Avian Nest Success In Relation To Past Grazing Regimes In A Montane Riparian System. The Condor 99:7-13. Online Article
  • Burcar, S., W. W. Miller, S.W. Tyler, R. R. Blank. (1997). Moist- And Dry-Season Nitrogen Transport In Sierra Nevada Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61(6):1774-1780.
  • Christopherson, J., S. R. Lewis, and M. Havercamp. (1996). Lake Tahoe’s Forest Health Consensus Group. Journal Of Forestry 94(8):10-12.
  • Basey, J. M.; Jenkins, S. H. (1995). Influences Of Predation Risk And Energy Maximization On Food Selection By Beavers (Castor Canadensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology 73:2197-2208.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1995). Sequential Patterns Of Scatter Hoarding By Yellow Pine Chipmunks (Tamias Amoenus).American Midland Naturalist 133(2):312-321. Online Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1995). The Effects Of Seed Value On The Caching Behavior Of Yellow Pine Chipmunks. Oikos74(3):533-537.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1995). Influence Of Substrate Water On The Ability Of Rodents To Find Buried Seeds. Journal of Mammalogy 76(3):851-856.
  • Post, R. and J. Christopherson. (1994). Turf Fertilization At Lake Tahoe. Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet FS-94-64. Online publication
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1994). Removal Of Wind-Dispersed Pine Seeds By Ground-Foraging Vertebrates. Oikos 69:125-132.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1994). Seed Fate Pathways Of Antelope Bitterbrush: Dispersal By Seed-Caching Yellow Pine Chipmunks. Ecology 75(7):1911-1926. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Burcar, S., W. W. Miller, S.W. Tyler, D. W. Johnson. (1994). Seasonal Preferential Flow In 2 Sierra-Nevada Soils Under Forested And Meadow Cover. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58(5):1555-1561.
  • Barnes, M. E.; Rust, R. W. (1994). Seed Production And Seed Predation In Gentiana Newberryi (Gentianaceae) Populations. Madroño 41(2):128-137.
  • Barnes, M. E.; Rust, R. W. (1994). Seed Production In Gentiana Newberryi (Gentianaceae). Great Basin Naturalist54(4):351-358.
  • Christopherson, J. and R. Post. (1994). Using Fertilizers Properly. Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet FS-94-1. Online publication
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1993). Salivary Water Loss To Seeds In Yellow Pine Chipmunks And Merriam’s Kangaroo Rats.Ecology 74(5):1307-1312. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1993). Seed Water Content And The Vulnerability Of Buried Seeds To Foraging Rodents.American Midland Naturalist 129(2):272-281. Online Article (UNR access only)
  • Christopherson, J. and W. S. Johnson. (1992). Trees For Tahoe Landscapes. Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet FS-92-49. Online publication
  • Christopherson, J. and W. S. Johnson. (1992). Turf And Erosion Control Grasses For The Tahoe Basin. Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet FS-92-53. Online publication
  • Christopherson, J. and W. S. Johnson. (1992). Wildflowers For The Tahoe Environment. Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet FS-92-54. Online publication
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1992). The Role Of Animals In Dispersing A “Wind-Dispersed” Pine. Ecology 73(2):614-621.Online Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1992). Establishment Of Jeffrey Pine Seedlings From Animal Caches. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 7(1):14-20.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1991). Mechanisms Of Cache Recovery By Yellow Pine Chipmunk. Animal Behavior 41(5):851-863.
  • Basey, J. M.; Jenkins, S. H.; Miller, G. C. (1990). Food Selection By Beavers In Relation To Inducible Defenses Of Populus Tremuloides. Oikos 59:57-62.
  • Rust, R. W. (1990). Spatial And Temporal Heterogeneity Of Pollen Foraging In Osmia Lignaria Propinqua (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Environmental Entomology 19(2):332-338.
  • Eshelman, B. D.; Jenkins, S. H. (1989). Food Selection By Belding’s Ground Squirrels
  • Baughman, J. F.; Brussard, P. F.; Ehrlich, P. R.; Murphy, D. D. (1990). History, Selection, Drift, And Gene Flow: Complex Differentiation In Checkerspot Butterflies. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:1967-1975.
  • Marcus, J.A., W.W. Miller, R.R. Blank. (1998). Soil Processes And Chemical Transport: Inorganic And Suspended/Dissolved-Organic Nitrogen In Sierra Nevada Soil Core Leachates. Journal of Environmental Quality 27(4):755-760.
  • McConnell, L. L., J. S. LeNoir, S. Datta, J. N. Seiber. (1998). Wet Deposition Of Current-Use Pesticides In The Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, California, USA. Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry 17(10):1908-1916.
  • Miller, W. W., R. R. Blank, J. A. Marcus. (1998). Inorganic N And P In Leachate From Post-Snowmelt Sierran Riparian And Upland Soil Cores. Amean Water Resources Association Technical Publication Series TPS, Report: TPS-98-1. D. F. Potts. Bethesda, American Water Resources Association:447-455.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1998). Foraging Success Of Granivorous Rodents: Effects Of Variation In Seed And Soil Water On Olfaction. Ecology 79(1):233-241. AbstractOnline Article, ESA (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B. and J. W. Joyner. (1998). Recaching Of Jeffrey Pine (Pinus Jeffreyi) Seeds By Yellow Pine Chipmunks (Tamias Amoenus): Potential Effects On Plant Reproductive Success. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76(1):154-162. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B. and J. W. Joyner. (1998). Secondary Dispersal By The Wind Of Winged Pine Needles Across The Ground Surface. American Midland Naturalist 139(2):365-373. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Johnson, D. W., R. B. Susfalk, R. A. Dahlgren. (1997). Nutrient Fluxes In Forests Of The Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains, United States Of America. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11(4):673-681. Abstrac
  • Rhea, S. A., W. W. Miller, R. R. Blank, D. E. Palmquist. (1996). Presence And Behavior Of Colloidal Nitrogen And Phosphorus In A Sierra Nevada Watershed Soil. Journal Of Environmental Quality 25(6):1449-1451.
  • Porter, J. L.; Rust, R. W. (1997). Phylogenetic Relationships Of North American Aegialia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) As Indicated By Allozymes And Morphology. Annals of the Entomological Society of America90(3):302-315.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1996). Associative Learning And The Use Of Cache Markers By Yellow Pine Chipmunks (Tamias Amoenus). Southwestern Naturalist 41:88-90.
  • Johnson, D. W. (1995). Soil Properties Beneath Ceanothus And Pine Stands In The Eastern Sierra-Nevada. Soil Science Society Of America Journal 59(3):918-924.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1995). Dynamics Of Yellow Pine Chipmunk (Tamias Amoenus) Seed Caches: Underground Traffic In Bitterbrush Seeds. Ecoscience 2(3):261-266. AbstractOnline Article (UNR access only)
  • Goodrich, J. M., J. Berger. (1994). Winter Recreation And Hibernating Black Bears Ursus Americanus. Biological Conservation 67:105-110. Abstract
  • Naslas, G. D., W. W. Miller, G. F. Gifford, G. C. J. Fernandez. (1994). Effects Of Soil Type, Plot Condition, And Slope On Runoff And Interrill Erosion Of 2 Soils In The Lake Tahoe Basin. Water Resources Bulletin 30(2):319-328.
  • Knapp, P. A., K. A. Bishop, J. M. Lancaster, R. L. Taylor. (1993). Use Of GIS In Optimizing Timber Thinning Strategies In The Eastern Sierra-Nevada. Professional Geographer 45(3):323-331. Online Article (UNR access only)
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1993). Cache Site Selection By Chipmunks (Tamias Spp.) And Its Influence On The Effectiveness Of Seed Dispersal In Jeffrey Pine (Pinus Jeffreyi). Oecologia 96:246-252.
  • Vander Wall, S. B. (1993). A Model Of Caching Depth: Implications For Scatter Hoarders And Plant Dispersal. The American Naturalist 141(2):217-232. Online Article (UNR access only)
  • Guerrant, D. G., W. W. Miller, C. N. Mahannah, R. Narayanan. (1991). Site-Specific Erosivity Evaluation Of A Sierra-Nevada Forested Watershed Soil. Journal Of Environmental Quality 20(2):396-402.
  • Guerrant, D.G., W. W. Miller, C.N. Mahannah, R. Narayanan. (1991). Soil Processes And Chemical Transport: Site-Specific Erosivity Evaluation Of A Sierra Nevada Forested Watershed Soil. Journal of Environmental Quality 20(2):396-402.
  • Guerrant, D. G., W. W. Miller, C. N. Mahannah, R. Narayanan. (1990). Infiltration Evaluation Of Four Mechanical Rainfall Simulation Techniques In Sierra Nevada Watersheds. Water Resources Bulletin 26:127-134.
  • Cripps, C.; Rust, R. W. (1989). Pollen Foraging In A Community Of Osmia Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).Environmental Entomology 18(4):582-589.
  • Hixon, S. E.; Walker, R. F.; Skau, C. M. (1988). Spring Denitrification Rates In Soils Of Four Eastside Sierra Nevada Plant Communities. Great Basin Naturalist 48(4):558-562.
  • Basey, J. M., S. H. Jenkins, P. E. Busher. (1988). Optimal Central-Place Foraging By Beavers: Tree-Size Selection In Relation To Defensive Chemicals Of Quaking Aspen. Oecologia 76:278-282.
  • In Relation To Plant Nutritional Features. Journal of Mammalogy 70(4):846-852.Rust, R. W. (1987). Collecting Of Pinus (Pinaceae) Pollen By Osmia Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).Environmental Entomology 16(3):668-671.
  • Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Kay, B. L.; Budy, J. D. (1986). California Black Oak Woodlands In The Great Basin.Transactions Western Section the Wildlife Society 22:117-120.
  • Tiehm, A. (1985). Vascular Plant Types Of Clarence King’s Exploration Of The Fortieth Parallel, 1867-1869.Brittonia 37(4):400-424.v
  • Busher, P. E.; Warner, R. J.; Jenkins, S. H. (1983). Population Density, Colony Composition, And Local Movements In Two Sierra Nevadan Beaver Populations. Journal of Mammalogy 64(2):314-318.
  • Lavin, M. (1981). New Records For The Moss Flora Of Nevada. The Bryologist 84(1):93-94.
  • Vreeland, P.; Kleiner, E. F.; Vreeland, H. (1981). Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Of Sarcodes Sanguinea. Environmental and Experimental Biology 21:15-25.


  • Tiehm, A. (1976). Tricardia Watsonii. Mentzelia 2:10.
  • Vreeland, P.; Vreeland, H. (1975). Fire And Ice: The Brilliant Snow Plant Lights The Forest As Winter’s Drifts Recede. Mentzelia 1:14-16.
  • Rust, R. W. (1974). The Systematics And Biology Of The Genus Osmia, Subgenera Osmia, Chalcosmia, And Cephalosmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The Wasmann Journal of Biology 32(1):1-93.
  • Kelleher, J. V.; O’Malia, W. F. (1971). Golden Eagle Attacks A Mallard. The Auk 88:186.


  • Evans, R. N. (1967). Nest Site Movement Of A Poor-Will. The Wilson Bulletin 79(4):453.
  • Ryser, F. A. (1963). Prothonotary Warbler And Yellow-Shafted Flicker In Nevada. The Condor 65(4):334. Online Article
  • La Rivers, I. (1951). A Revision Of The Genus Ambrysus In The United States (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). University of California Publications in Entomology 8(7):277-338.
  • La Rivers, I. (1950). The Dryopoidea Known Or Expected To Occur In The Nevada Area (Coleoptera). The Wasmann Journal of Biology 8(1):97-111.
  • La Rivers, I. (1949). Hydradephagous Coleoptera Of The Nevada Area, Exclusive Of The Dytiscidae. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 48(3):129-140.
  • La Rivers, I. (1946). Some Dragonfly Observations In Alkaline Areas In Nevada. Entomological News 57(9):209-217.
  • La Rivers, I. (1946). An Annotated List Of Carabinae Known To Occur In Nevada (Coleptera: Carabidae). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of
  • Oosting, H. J.; Billings, W. D. (1943). The Red Fir Forest Of The Sierra Nevada: Abietum Magnificae. Ecological Monographs 13(3):260-274.
  • La Rivers, I. (1941). Additions To The List Of Nevada Dragonflies (Odonata). Entomological News 52(5):126-130.
  • Sciences 45(3):133-140.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1912). Alpine Plants – IX. Muhlenbergia 8:59.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1912). Alpine Plants – V. Muhlenbergia 7:133-136.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1912). Alpine Plants – VI. Muhlenbergia 8:18-19.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1912). Alpine Plants – VII. Muhlenbergia 8:25-26.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1912). Alpine Plants – VIII. Muhlenbergia 8:46-47.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1912). Alpine Plants – X. Muhlenbergia 8:72.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1912). Alpine Plants – XI. Muhlenbergia 8:95.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1912). Alpine Plants – XII. Muhlenbergia 8:108.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1912). Alpine Plants – XIII. Muhlenbergia 8:119-120.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1911). Alpine Plants – I. Muhlenbergia 7:95-96.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1911). Alpine Plants – IV. Muhlenbergia 7:121-123.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1910). Plant Distribution On The Truckee-Carson Project, Fallon, Nevada. Muhlenbergia 6:85-91.
  • Heller, A. A. (1910). Notes On The Flora Of Nevada – I. Muhlenbergia 6:49-52.
  • Heller, A. A. (1910). Notes On The Flora Of Nevada – II. Muhlenbergia 6:77-80.
  • Heller, A. A. (1910). Notes On The Flora Of Nevada – III. Muhlenbergia 6:91-95.
  • Heller, A. A. (1909). The Nevada Lupines – II. Muhlenbergia 5:145-153.
  • Heller, A. A. (1910). The Nevada Lupines – III. Muhlenbergia 6:13-24.
  • Heller, A. A. (1910). The Nevada Lupines – IV. Muhlenbergia 6:25-32.
  • Heller, A. A. (1910). The Nevada Lupines – V. Muhlenbergia 6:97-107.
  • Heller, A. A. (1910). The Nevada Lupines – VI. Muhlenbergia 6:109-113.
  • Heller, A. A. (1909). The Nut Pine. Muhlenbergia 5:31-35.
  • Nelson, A.; Kennedy, P. B. (1908). New Plants From The Great Basin. Muhlenbergia 3(9):121-143.
  • Kennedy, P. B. (1907). Botanical Features Around Reno. Muhlenbergia 3(2):17-32.
  • Nelson, A.; Kennedy, P. B. (1906). Plantae Montrosensis. I. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington19:35-40.
  • Hillman, F. H. (1896). Field Notes On Some Nevada Grasses. Nevada State University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 33(November):1-13.
  • Hillman, F. H. (1894). Early Flora Of The Truckee Valley. Nevada State University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 24(November):i – vii, 1-95.

Special Reports and Historic Documents

in Digital Collections, University of Nevada, Reno Libraries

Alpine and Subalpine Vegetation of the Lake Tahoe Region. F. J. Smiley, 1915. Botanical Gazette 59, no. 4 (April): 265-286.
Includes information about geology, topology, climate (with temperature and precipitation charts) and lists of plants in the vegetation zones.

Lake of the Sky: Lake Tahoe. George Wharton James, 1915. New York: J. F. Tapley Co.
A 385-page digital book. A history of the earlier years of the Tahoe area. Includes photographs; Tahoe-related appendices on Mark Twain, Thomas Starr King, John Le Conte, and John Vance Cheney (with excerpts of their writings) and resorts.

Lake Tahoe Lumber Operations. (Scientific American, 1877). 1877. Scientific American (November 10): 291.
A short piece describing the lumber industry in the Tahoe area in 1877.

Letters no. 1, 2, and 3 in A Lady’s Life in the Rocky Mountains. Isabella Bird, 1879.
Letters written to her sister during her six-month journey by train and on horseback in the autumn and winter of 1873 from San Francisco to the Rockies. The first three pertain to the time she spent near Lake Tahoe. Originally published by G.P. Putnam’s Sons in New York.

Streaming Videos 

in Digital Collections, University of Nevada, Reno Libraries 

About the videos:
Click title for detailed description and link to the streaming video. Duration is shown like this: (01:30) = 1 min. 30 sec.